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How to do personal protection in the face of the epidemic?

Over the past few days, a lot of information has been released about the pneumonia epidemic caused by the new coronavirus infection. In this situation, how do each of us do well in prevention and control? What issues need to be paid attention to in daily protection? Around a series of issues of public concern, this newspaper has sorted out, hoping to provide help for readers in scientific prevention and control.


What are the symptoms of pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus?

Based on current epidemiological investigations, the incubation period is generally 3 to 7 days, with a maximum of 14 days. The main manifestations were fever, fatigue and dry cough. A small number of patients with nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea and other symptoms. In severe cases, dyspnea occurred after 1 week, and in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult to correct metabolic acidosis and coagulation dysfunction were rapidly developed. It is worth noting that severe and critical patients may have moderate to low fever during the course of the disease, or even no obvious fever. Some patients only showed low fever, slight fatigue, no pneumonia, more than 1 weeks after recovery. From the current cases, most patients have a good prognosis, children's symptoms are relatively mild, and a few patients are critically ill. Death cases are more common in the elderly and those with chronic underlying diseases.

What if you are suspected of being infected?

Such as fever, fatigue, dry cough performance, does not mean that has been infected.

Experts believe that since the current season is the season for respiratory diseases, seasonal flu and cold colds are also frequent, and blind screening caused by panic will lead to a shortage of medical resources. In addition, the risk of cross infection is also higher in the fever clinic of the medical institution.

Screening can be suspended if other causes of fever are identified. If it cannot be ruled out, it can be self-isolated first, but if the symptoms are significant, it is necessary to see a doctor in time.


How to home medical observation for close contacts of cases?

Close contacts of confirmed cases of pneumonia infected with novel coronavirus should be under medical observation for 14 days from the last day of contact with the patient. During the observation at home, it is necessary to keep in touch with the medical observation personnel, and to understand the main points of disease observation and nursing, and to master the measures of hand washing, ventilation, protection and disinfection for family prevention.

During home medical observation--

(I) place close contacts in well-ventilated single rooms and refuse all visits.

(II) limit the activities of close contacts and minimize the areas shared by close contacts and family members. Ensure that shared areas (kitchen, bathroom, etc.) are well ventilated (keep windows open).

(III) family members should live in different rooms, and if conditions do not permit, keep a distance of at least 1 meter from close contacts. Breastfeeding mothers may continue to breastfeed their babies.

(IV) other family members should wear masks when entering the living space of close contacts. The masks should be close to the face. Do not touch and adjust the masks in the living space. The mask becomes wet and dirty due to secretions and must be replaced immediately. After removing and discarding the mask, wash your hands.

Clean hands (V) any direct contact with close contacts or after leaving the living space of close contacts. Prepare food, clean your hands before and after meals. If your hands are not very dirty, you can clean them with alcohol-free lotion. If your hands are dirty, wash them with soap and water. (Note that alcohol is safe to use, such as accidentally swallowing or causing a fire).

When (VI) wash your hands with soap and water, it is best to use disposable toilet paper. If not, wipe with a clean towel. The towel needs to be replaced when it gets wet.

Materials used to cover the nose and mouth (VII) occasional coughing or sneezing may be discarded or properly washed after use (e. g., handkerchiefs with regular soap/detergent and water).

(VIII) families should minimize contact with close contacts and their supplies. Such as avoid sharing toothbrushes, cigarettes, tableware, meals, drinks, towels, bath towels, sheets, etc. Tableware should be cleaned with detergent and water after use.

(IX) recommend the use of chlorine disinfectant and peracetic acid disinfectant, frequent cleaning every day, disinfection family members often touch items, such as bedside tables, bed frames and other bedroom furniture. Clean and disinfect bathroom and toilet surfaces at least once a day.

(X) use ordinary laundry soap and clean water to wash clothes, bed sheets, bath towels, towels, etc. of close contacts, or use a washing machine to clean at 60-90 degrees Celsius and ordinary household laundry detergent, and then completely dry the above items. Put the bedding used by close contacts into a laundry bag. Do not shake clothes, avoid direct contact with the skin and their own clothes.

(11) Wear disposable gloves and protective clothing (such as plastic apron) to clean and touch the surface of objects, clothing or bedding contaminated by human secretions of close contacts. Clean and disinfect hands before and after gloves are taken off.

(12) If close contacts of confirmed cases have suspicious symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, chest tightness, dyspnea, mild anorexia, fatigue, mental illness, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild limb or waist and back muscle soreness, etc., they should seek medical attention immediately.

Neighbors and family members have a fever, what should I do?

Reduce communication. If you have to communicate, wear a mask and keep a distance of more than 1 meter from them to avoid the spread of droplets.

In case of contact or indirect contact, wipe with alcohol and wash your hands.

If you have symptoms such as fever, coughing, stuffy nose and sneezing, please also consciously reduce contact with others, wear a surgical mask when you go out, wash your hands in the right way, cover your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, and discard tissues in time.

Home articles

What do you need to pay attention to at home?

Keep the room clean, open the windows frequently and keep the air open.

Maintain hand hygiene at all times. Reduce contact with public goods and parts in public places; After returning from public places, coughing with your hands, and after going to the toilet before meals, wash your hands with hand sanitizer or soap, or use alcohol-containing hand sanitizer; When you are not sure whether your hands are clean, avoid touching your mouth, nose and eyes with your hands; cover your mouth and nose with elbow clothes when sneezing or coughing.

It is recommended to wear a mask when going out. When traveling to public places, medical treatment and public transportation, you should wear a medical surgical mask or N95 mask.

What does health monitoring need to pay attention?

Take the initiative to monitor the health of individuals and family members. Self-conscious fever requires active body temperature measurement. If there are children in the family, touch the forehead of the child sooner or later, and measure the body temperature if there is fever.

Prepare common supplies. Home preparation thermometer, disposable masks, household disinfection supplies and other materials.

How should the home environment be disinfected?

Special disinfection is not required unless there is already a suspected infected patient in the home. Almost all of the cases now are related to Wuhan, and some are family aggregation type, which belong to close contact.

If you haven't been in contact with any confirmed or suspected cases, and haven't been out for dinner recently, don't be too nervous, your home is still a relatively safe environment.

If you are really worried, you can also disinfect the parts that you often touch at home, such as mobile phones, door handles, and remote controls. It should be noted that if the surface of the object itself is dirty, it needs to be cleaned and then disinfected.

Disinfection can be wiped with 75% alcohol cotton or alcohol, or diluted sodium hypochlorite, which is our common 84 disinfectant.

Generally speaking, the dilution ratio of 84 disinfectant (or other household bleach containing 5% sodium hypochlorite) and water is 1: 100. Remember to wear rubber gloves (kitchen gloves or medical gloves) and masks when configuring. Follow the instructions on the product package. It's also best to wear goggles and a waterproof apron.

Smoked liquor can not be disinfected, no matter how high the alcohol is volatilized, the concentration in the air is far from the effect of disinfection.

Will open the window for ventilation let the virus float in?

Many people are puzzled by window ventilation. Since the home is the safest, isn't window ventilation just to let the virus float in?

In fact, opening windows for ventilation helps to reduce the amount of viruses that may exist in the room and also helps to update the indoor air. The outdoor air is "diluted" and it is almost impossible to bring the virus into the room.

If there is a patient with suspected acute respiratory infection in the home, open the window and do not open the door when ventilating, and do not use the fresh air system to prevent the gas in the patient's area from entering the clean area.

What do you need to pay attention to in terms of food safety?

Separate cutting boards and knives for handling raw and cooked food. Wash hands between handling raw and cooked food. Even in affected areas, meat is safe to eat if it is thoroughly cooked and handled properly during food preparation.

Out of the article

Why say no to the party "?

Because in the process of preparing and eating the party, there will be many people participating, forming an artificial gathering of relatives and friends, which provides favorable conditions for the epidemic of the disease. In the process of preparing meals and gatherings, people are in close contact with each other. The droplets produced by coughing and sneezing can be directly transmitted to the entire party, which can easily cause the spread of diseases. Therefore, in order to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus, we try not to have dinner, and advise others not to have dinner. If it is inevitable, please wash your hands in time before meals, avoid eating at the same table with people with cough, fever and other symptoms, and try to implement a meal sharing system or use public chopsticks.

What should I pay attention to if I go out to purchase?

Try to reduce unnecessary travel, try not to go to crowded places, minimize group activities, wear a mask when going out, and wash your hands first when you go home.

If you must go to the fresh market to purchase, after contact with animals and animal products, wash your hands with soap and water, avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth; avoid contact with sick animals and spoiled meat; avoid contact with stray animals and garbage in the market.

What should groups working in the fresh market pay attention?

For those working in the fresh food market, wash their hands with soap and water frequently after contact with animals and animal products; disinfect equipment and work areas at least once a day; wear protective clothing, gloves and face protection when handling animals and fresh animal products; take off protective clothing after work, wash and leave it in the work area every day; and prevent family members from touching unwashed work clothes and shoes.

What do you need to do to come back from home?

Take off your clothes, take off your mask and wash your hands normally.

Usually, the pathogens of respiratory related diseases are mainly transmitted through droplets, with a range of about 1 meter. For ordinary people, do not go to crowded places and keep a safe distance. Wearing a mask when going out, washing hands frequently, and covering your mouth and nose with a tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing can already protect you without excessive panic.

Can pets be infected? How should they be protected when walking dogs?

At present, there is no evidence that the coronavirus will be transmitted to cats and dogs. However, it is recommended that pets also go out less, as well as their owners. If you want to walk the dog, in addition to wearing a mask, give the dog and cat a thorough bath after returning home, and use common bath products.

If you are sick, you must go to the hospital. What protective measures should you take?

Be well protected and don't touch around. First of all, be sure to wear a medical surgical mask or medical protective mask. Remember to wash your hands in the right way. Be careful not to touch the outside of the mask! Wash your hands after taking off the mask! Don't rub your eyes! Don't touch around the hospital! Secondly, we should also pay attention to protect others, keep a distance from others, and remember to block with elbows when sneezing and coughing.


How to choose masks?

General population: It is recommended that ordinary people, public transportation drivers, taxi drivers, sanitation workers, public service personnel, etc. wear masks during their on-the-job periods. It is recommended to use medical surgical masks. Medical protective masks can be worn if conditions permit and physical conditions permit.

Special population: high-risk population who may be in contact with suspected or confirmed cases. In principle, it is recommended to wear medical protective masks (N95 and above) and goggles. Some patients with cardiopulmonary diseases should consult a professional doctor before wearing, and choose a suitable mask under the guidance of a professional doctor.

As for medical surgical masks, first look at the logo on the outer packaging of the product, product performance needs to meet the YY0469-2011. The medical surgical mask is divided into 3 layers, the outer layer has a water blocking effect, which can prevent droplets from entering the mask to the inside; the middle layer has a filtering effect, and the bacterial filtering effect of the mask is not less than 95%; the inner layer near the nose is used to absorb moisture.

No matter what type of mask, the use of time is limited, must be replaced regularly. The mask is wet or soiled by secretions, and the protective performance is reduced. It is recommended to replace it immediately.

How to deal with used masks?

Masks worn by the general population have no risk of transmission of the new coronavirus, and can be disposed of in accordance with the classification requirements of household waste after use. Masks used by suspected patients and their caregivers are collected and disposed of as medical waste.

Need to buy goggles?

Ordinary people do not recommend buying goggles. The core users of goggles are front-line clinicians, who often come into close contact with patients and do pay attention to eye protection. For ordinary people, in public places, rarely encounter such patients, there is no need to buy goggles.

But everyone should be careful not to rub their eyes, because the hands may come into contact with the virus, and then contact with the eyes will cause conjunctival infection.

Do you need to disinfect when you get takeout or express delivery?

If you are worried about the indirect contact between take-out and express delivery, you can let the take-out brother leave it at the door and take it into the room when he leaves (both parties have less contact with one person and are safe), wipe the packaging bag with alcohol and open it after washing your hands.

As for express delivery, the survival time of different viruses outside the human body is different. The virus infected by express delivery has already died. But in the delivery/distribution of recent contamination of the virus may still survive. After receiving, you can also wipe the outer packaging directly with alcohol to reduce the risk.


Can Assault Exercise Boost Immunity?

If you can exercise regularly for a long time, it must be helpful to improve people's overall immunity. However, the current new coronavirus pneumonia is a new disease, so even if we exercise to enhance immunity, it also enhances our non-specific immunity. For the improvement of specific immunity, it is still necessary to develop a pathogen vaccine.

The influence of scientific fitness on people is divided into two categories, one is called immediate effect and the other is long-term effect.

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